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AUXILIARY VERBS OR HELPING VERBS




Auxiliary Verbs Or Helping Verbs



An auxiliary verb or helping verb is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to a sentence. These verbs usually accompany a main verb.
[একটি auxiliary verb বা helping verb কোনো sentence এ grammatical meaning নিয়ে আসে। Helping verb গুলি main verb এর সহকারী হিসেবে কাজ করে।]
Examples--

Do  verbs as helping verbs (do, does, did):-

Do is used as both- action verb and helping verb. But the helping verb do is used in a negative sentence and interrogative sentence.

[Do কে main verb এবং helping verb দুরকম verb হিসেবে ব্যবহার করা যায়। কিন্তু helping verb do কে শুধু negative sentence এবং interrogative sentence এ ব্যবহার করা হয়।]

Ex—
You do not do this.
 – In this sentence, the first do is the helping verb for the action verb do, which is in the second position.
 [You did not do this –এই বাক্যটিতে দুটো do ব্যবহৃত হয়েছে।দ্বিতীয় do টি হল action verb আর প্রথমের do টি হল এখানে দ্বিতীয় do - action verb এর helping verb.]

Okay, now have a look at some more examples —
Do not run in the sun.
Why didn't you go to school?
Does she attend her class everyday?



Where to use do and does as helping verbs...

We have to use do as the helping verb after any subject, if the subject is not a third person singular number.

[Helping verb হিসেবে do কে যেকোনো subject এর পর বসানো যেতে পারে, যদিনা subject টি third person singular number না হয়।]
Ex—
I do not sleep at noon. (আমি দুুুুপুরে ঘুুুমোই না।)
Do you play football? (তুই কি ফুটবল খেলিস?)

Know about third person singular number.

Now, look at these sentences:
Rahul doesn’t eat rice.
Doesn’t he sleep at night?
- In this two sentences, the subjects Rahul and he are the third person singular numbers, so we used does, instead of do.
[ওপরের sentence দুটিতে subject Rahul ও he হল third person singular number, তাই এক্ষেত্রে helping verb হিসেবে does ব্যবহার করা হয়েছে।]



Where to use did as a helping verb...

Did is the past form of do and does. Did is used as the helping verb after any subject in a sentence of past tense.
[Did হচ্ছে dodoes এর past form. Past tense এর কোনো বাক্যে যে-কোনো subject এর পরে did ব্যবহার করা যায়।]

Like,
Did Kajol pass the exam? (কাজল কি পরীক্ষায় পাস করেছিল?)
Jamal did not buy that pencil. (জামাল ওই পেন্সিলটি কেনেনি।)

Usages of do verbs as main verbs and helping verbs [Main verb ও helping verb হিসেবে do verb-এর ব্যবহার]:
Do-
When Used As main verb             When Used As Helping Verb
I do my job. (আমি আমার কাজ করি।) I do not know. (আমি জানি না।)
He does it. (ও এটি করে।)Does he play cricket? (ও কি ক্রিকেট খেলে?)
They did nothing. (তারা কিছুই করল না।) What did they do for the people?
(তারা মানুষের জন্য কি কাজ করল?)


  •  Have verbs as the helping verbs:

A have verb, as a helping verb is usually used to form a perfect sentence (present, past and future).
[Present, past এবং future perfect sentence গঠন করতে have verb ব্যবহার করা হয়।]
The syntax of a perfect tense is -
[Perfect sentence-এর গঠন]
Subject + (shall/will*) have/has/had + past participle form of main verb + object and others.
*Shall or will is used only for the future tense.
[Shall/will একমাত্র future tense-এ ব্যবহৃত হয়।]

Like-
I have eaten rice. (আমি ভাত খেয়েছি।)
He has done a very good job. (সে একটি খুব ভালো কাজ করেছে।)
Ajoy had had* his breakfast yesterday before he went to school. (গতকাল অজয় স্কুলে যাবার আগে জলখাবার খেয়েছিল।)
*[দ্বিতীয় had-টির অর্থ হল 'খাাওয়া']

Know about- general use of Have verb.

Now let's see the distinction between the uses of have verbs as main verbs and as helping verbs:
[Main verb ও helping verb হিসেবে have verb -এর ব্যবহারের পার্থক্য]:
           As Main verb    (have=আছে)
    As Helping Verb                    
I have a cell phone. 
I have eaten rice. (খেয়েছি।)
Rabin has a little sister. 
Rabin has gone to  school. (গেছে।)
They had a large house. (ছিল)
They had finished the tasks. (শেষ করেছে।)


Be verbs
as the helping verbs:

[Helping verb হিসেবে be verb-এর ব্যবহার।]

As an auxiliary verb, a be verb is used in sentence, which is in continuous tense (present and past) or which is in passive voice.
[Helping verb হিসেবে be verb-কে past এবং present continuous tense(ঘটমান)-এ এবং passive voice (কর্মবাচ্য)-এ ব্যবহার করা হয়।]
Like-
She is singing. (Present continuous) [সে গান গাইছে (ঘটমান বর্তমান)]
-Here the is is used as a helping verb for the main verb singing and it helps to form this present continuous tense.

[-এখানে is-কে main verb sing-এর helping verb হিসেবে ব্যবহার করা হয়েছে এবং এই present continuous tense(ঘটমান বর্তমান)-কে গঠন করতে সাহায্য করেছে।]
See another example-
The book was written by Tagore.
-Here in this one, was is the auxiliary verb for written and it helps to form a passive voice.
[আবার এখানে was-কে written-এর helping verb হিসেবে ব্যবহার করে একটি sentence গঠন করা হয়েছে যেটি passive voice(কর্ম বাচ্য)-এ আছে।]

• Be verbs as the helping verbs:

Be verbs-
When used as Main verbsWhen used as Auxiliary verbs
I am busy right now. (আমি এখন ব্যস্ত)I am eating rice. (আমি ভাত খাচ্ছি)
You are a happy person. (তুমি সুখী ব্যক্তি)They are doing excellent job. (তারা খুব ভালো কাজ করছে)
He is tall. (সে লম্বা)She is cooking. (উনি রাঁধছেন)
Suman was a very humble boy. (সুমন খুবই নম্র ছেলে ছিল।)The deer was killed by the lion. (হরিণটির সিংহটি দ্বারা মৃত্যু হল)
Those people were poor. (ওই মানুষগুলো দরিদ্র ছিল।)                                     They were attacked by the extremists. (তারা উগ্রপন্থীদের দ্বারা আক্রান্ত হয়েছিল।)

So, thats all...
I hope you have understood everything. But if not, feel free to ask anything in the comment box regarding this lesson...
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Modal Auxiliary Verbs

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Examples:-



1.Can (পারা):Can-এর ব্যবহার:

Can is used to express-


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Ex-
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Ram can not drive. (রাম গাড়ি চালাতে পারে না।) etc.


Can is also used to take permission:
[অনুমতি নেওয়ার সময় can ব্যবহার করা হয়।]
Ex-
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(1st form)Past form
(2nd form)Past participle 
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(3rd form)Add
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(লাফানো)JumpedJumpedJumpsJumpingDance
(নৃত্য করা)DancedDancedDancesDancingAct
(অভিনয় করা)ActedActedActsActingOpen
(খোলা)OpenedOpenedOpensOpeningLove
(ভালোবাসা)LovedLovedLovesLovingLock
(বন্ধ করা)LockedLockedLocksLockingSpot
(চিহ্নিত করা)SpottedSpottedSpotsSpottingLaugh