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Clause and its Types | Principal Clause, Subordinate Clause, Co-ordinate Clause

Clauses is crucial topic to learn before discussing Joining or Synthesis.  What is clause? A clause is a group of words having a finite verb . It is a part of a bigger sentence.  E.g. – i. I saw the boy who was buying chocolates. ii. She went there but you did not keep your promise. In the sentence i. “I saw the boy” and “who was buying chocolates” are the parts of the bigger sentence – I saw the boy who was buying chocolates. Each of these parts is a clause. Similarly In the sentence ii. “She went there” and “but you did not keep your promise” are the parts of the bigger sentence – She went there but you did not keep your promise. Each of these parts is a clause.   What are the types of clauses? Clauses are if three types — Principal Clause,  Subordinate Clause and Coordinate Clause. Principal Clause: A principal clause is that part, which alone can make a complete sense. As in “I saw the boy who was buying chocolates”, the part “I saw the boy” alone can make a sense unlike th

Noun and Case | Grammatical Case— Subjective Case or Nominative Case, Objective Case, Possessive Case.

  What is grammatical case? Case is a form of a noun or a pronoun which shows the relation of that very noun or pronoun to other words in a sentence. Types of Grammatical Case: There are three types of case in English grammar — Nominative Case, Objective Case, Possessive Case. #1. Nominative Case:  Ehen a noun or a pronoun is used as the subject (or agent) of a sentence, it is in nominative case.  E.g. – (a) Peter plays hockey. (b) We fly kites. (c) The girl likes him. (d) A boy was reading the book. In the sentences (a), (b), (c) , and (d), Peter, We, girl, and boy are the subjects of the verbs plays, fly, likes, reading respectively. These subjects are in nominative case.  The nominative is actually the answer of “who?” and “what?” . Types of Nominative Case: There are two types of Nominative case –  (i) Nominative of address and (ii) Nominative absolute.  (i) Nominative of Address – This case is used while a person is addressed (called) . E.g. –  Peter, come here. –

Interchange of degrees - Exercises

We've learnt changing the degrees of comparison – (i)   Degree words- Positive, Comparative, and Superlative forms of adjective ,    (ii)  Interchange of Positive Degree and Comparative Degree .   (iii)  Interchange of Positive Degree and Superlative Degree   and   (iv)  Interchange of Comparative Degree and Superlative Degree . Now, it's time to practice, – here are some exercises. Positive to Others : Positive to Comparative: Positive – He is as brave as a lion. Comparative – Positive – I am as weak as a child. Comparative – Positive – He is not so tall as Joe. Comparative – Positive – Meena is as good as Teena. Comparative – Positive – Rohit is as dull as Mohan. Comparative – Positive – Steve is as intelligent as Mitchel. Comparative – Positive – My brother is not so much popular as I am. Comparative – Positive – They were not so poor as we were. Comparative – Positive –   You are not so fat as Pinaki. Comparative – Positive – Mr. Mukherjee is as wise as Mr. Sen. Co

Interchange of Degrees of Comparison – Comparative Degree and Superlative Degree | Degree Chenge

This is the last post on Interchange of Degrees of Comparison. Hope you all have read the other two – Interchange of Positive Degree and Comparative Degree  and Interchange of Positive Degree and Superlative Degree  and understood very well. Type I — Superlative Degree to Comparative Degree: Superlative – He is the tallest boy in the class.  (Use the positive degree of the adjective ‘tallest’ and rewrite the sentence.) Steps to Change Superlative Degree to Comparative Degree:  Step 1 : Use the subject of superlative degree as the subject of comparative degree .   (Here, the subject is ‘He’ ) Comparative – He ... Remember: The subject of superlative and the subject of comparative are the same unlike the other degree changings (— Positive–Comparative and Comparative–Superlative) where the subject and the object interchange their positions. Step 2 : Use a suitable verb . (Here, the verb is a be verb – ‘is’ .) Comparative – He is ... Step 3 :  Put the comparative degree of the adjective

Interchange of Degrees of Comparison – Positive Degree and Superlative Degree | Degree Change

Interchange of degrees of Comparison is one of the most important chapters for examinations. We see at least one question or two in almost every competitive exams. Interchange of positive degree and Comparative degree has been discussed. Now, in this article we will be talking about the Interchange of positive degree and Superlative degree. Read more:   Interchange of Positive Degree and Comparative Degree Type I  –  The Positive Degree Starting with ‘ No other ’ . Superlative Degree to Positive Degree: Superlative – America is the richest country. (Rewrite using the positive degree of the adjective ‘ richest ’) Steps to turn Superlative Degree to Positive Degree:  Step 1 : The object of superlative degree is used as the subject of positive degree following a negative phrase ‘No other’ to keep the sense unchanged.  No other country ... Step 2 : Use a suitable verb .  (Here, it is a suitable be verb). No other country is ... Step 3 : Put as...as or so...as after the verb. No other

Interchange of Degrees of Comparison – Positive Degree and Comparative Degree | Degree Change

The degrees of adjective are some adjective of qualities. These words intensify the qualities of a noun or a pronoun. Classification of Degrees of Comparison: There are  three  types of degrees of comparison - Positive Degree, Comparative Degree   and   Superlative Degree. Positive Degree: The positive degree is the  simplest form of adjective . E.g. –  young, big . ● I am  young .  ● This house is  big . Comparative Degree: It is the form of adjective which is used to make  comparison between two persons or animals or things . E.g. –  younger, bigger . ● I am  younger  than he.  ● This house is  bigger  than that house. Superlative Degree: This form of adjective is used to make comparison between more than two persons or objects. E.g. –  youngest, biggest . ● I am the  youngest  son of my family.   ● This house is the  biggest  house in the city. Rules to Change the Degrees of Comparison: Interchange of Positive Degree and Comparative Degree: Positive Degree to Comparative Degree Rule

Degree Words | Grammatical Degrees of comparison - Adjective

The degrees of adjective are some adjective of qualities. These words intensify the qualities of a noun or a pronoun by comparing two or more persons or things or animals. Classification of Degrees of Comparison: There are three types of degrees of comparison - Positive Degree, Comparative Degree   and   Superlative Degree. Positive Degree: The positive degree is the simplest form of adjective . E.g. – young, big . ● I am young .  ● This house is big . Comparative Degree: It is the form of adjective which is used to make comparison between two persons or animals or things . E.g. – younger, bigger . ● I am younger than he.  ● This house is bigger than that house. Superlative Degree: This form of adjective is used to make comparison between more than two persons or objects. E.g. – youngest, biggest . ● I am the youngest son of my family.   ● This house is the biggest house in the city. Positive, comparative and superlative forms of adjectives:  Rule 1: Monosyllabic Adjectives:  F

Change the Narration of Universally True Speech, Habitual Action, Historical Event/Fact.

Many of you have confusions regarding the tense of indirect narration which we have discussed previously. Now in this article we are going to discuss when the tense of the reported speech remains unchanged in the indirect narration. Read more: Change the Narration of Different Tenses . Or,  How does the Tense Changes During Changing the arration . Q. When does the tense of reported speech not change in the indirect narration?   A. If the reported speech is a statement which is a universal truth or any historical evet or a habitual action (a part of the daily routine), then the tense of the reported speech doesn’t change no matter whatever tense the reporting verb is in. E.g. – Universal Truth : Direct – Mother said, “The sun rises in the east.” Indirect – Mother said that the sun rises in the east. Here the reported speech “The sun rises in the east” is used in the indirect speech as it is, without changing the tense though the reporting verb is in past tense . Other example:–

How to Change the Narration of a Speech with a Vocative Word or Addressing Word

Here we are to discuss the Changing the narration of a speech starting with a Vocative Word or Addressing Word .   Like in the sentence "Amal, what are you doing here?" someone is calling/addressing another one as 'Amal' and this word is known as vocative word or addressing word. In a direct narration, actually the addressing word refers to the listener. Now, let's have a look on the sentences below where three types use of vocative words are shown — 1. Direct – I said, “ John , are you busy now?”  – In this sentence, the listener is addressed as ‘John’ , which is actually the listener’s name. Or, 2. Direct – He said to us, “ Brothers , are you happy?”  – Here the listeners are addressed as ‘brothers’ which is neither the listeners’ actual name, nor is it used for blood relation, rather it is used casually for the sake of addressing. 3. Direct – She said, “ Well Pranay , I am going to surprise you.  – Here an extra word ‘well’ is used before the vocative

Change the Narration- Exercises (2)

This is the second part of the Narration-Change exercises. Hope you fond it helpful for your exam preparation.  She said to me, “I like mango.” Rahul said to his sister, “I play chess.” I said, “He loves reading books.” John said to Paul, “You don’t listen to him.” Paul said to me, “I don’t understand the Arabic language.” She said to her sister, “He does not help me.” Daniel said to his friend, “I don’t know the answer.” Maroof said to his mother, “I am eating bread.” I said to him, “Do you play chess?” She asked me, “Does he know English language?” I said to  him, “I am writing a letter.” She said to her friend, “Are you smoking?” Sania said to me, “She is annoying me.” I said to her. “Are they inviting me in the party?” You said to her, “I am not going to join them.” She said to me, “Brother, you are not helping me as I expected.” I said to my friend, “I have seen you in the cafe.” My brother said to me, “Have you bought a sun-glass for me.” My mother said to me, “Have you eaten the

100+ Change the Narration- Exercises 1

 Hope you have prepared well all the rules discussed previously. Now it's time to revise them and exercise. Here 75 Direct Narration are given, You only have to transform them into Indirect Narration. I say, “I am an executive officer.” I say, “You are a smart boy.” I say, “The place is beautiful.” I say, “He was my senior at school.” We say, “We love our country.” You say, “We were the champions.” You say, “You cannot defeat us.” You say, “Mr. Moor teaches us Political Science.” She says, “I will clear the exam in my very first attempt.”  She says, “I don’t know.” Ajay says, “He was a lunatic.” Ha says, “I was a cricketer.” I said, “Latif does nothing wrong.” I said, “You make me laugh.” I said, “I love you.” We said, “We shall overcome.” We said, “You are a cheat.” We said, “You are not allowed here.” You said, “I am a girl.” You said, “I collect coins.” You said, “Photography is my hobby.” He said, “Mr. Brown is an honest person.” Atif said, “There is a mice inside the box.” Sh

Change the Narration (Advanced Level Rules)

 After completing basic level of narration in previous four articles, here we are to learn the advanced level rules to change the narration.  How to Change tge Narration of a Reported Speech Starting with ‘ Let ’  : Rule 1 :  If the reported speech starts with ‘Let us’ or ‘Let’s’ : Direct – I said, “Let’s play chess.” [Turn it into indirect speech.] Now what to do this??? Let’s follow the steps below. Step I: As ‘Let’s’ or ‘Let us’ denotes a suggestion or a proposal, the reporting verb ( say/says/said ) will be replaced with - suggest/suggests/suggested or,  propose/proposes/proposed followed by a ‘that’ . As, Indirect – I suggested that...  Step II: Use ‘we’ or ‘they’ as the subject of the clause after the conjunction ‘that’ removing the word ‘let’. Use ‘we’ when the subject of the reporting verb is a first person, We can use either ‘we’ or ‘they’ if the subject of the reporting verb is a third person. As, Indirect – I suggested that we... Remember : Here in the direct nar