Contraction

Contraction in English Grammar

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What is Contraction in English grammar?

A word formed from two or more words by omitting some sounds.

E.g. – was not → wasn't,   it is → it's.


Why should I learn contractions?

Well, you should learn contractions to shorten your words. They are also useful in framing Tag Questions.


How can I form a contraction?

You can contact two words into one single word by dropping some consecutive letters and putting an apostrophe (') or () in their place.

For example,
You can contact "was not" to a single word by replacing the o in 'not' with an apostrophe.

Was not →wasn't,   

Similarly, you can make 'I would' a single word replacing the woul of would with an apostrophe.

I would →I'd


Note the contracted form of some auxiliary verbs:
  • ’d → did, had, would
  • ’m → am
  • ’s → is, has
  • ’re → are
  • ’ve → have
  • ’ll → shall, will
  • n't → not
                

  Rule 1:  Negative Contractions – Auxiliary verbs + not:

Not → -n't

To do verb + not

  • Do not → don't
  • Did not → didn't
  • Does not → doesn't

To be verb + not

  • Am not → ×
  • Is not → isn't
  • Are not → aren't
  • Was not → wasn't
  • Were not → weren't

To have verb + not

  • Have not → haven't
  • Has not → hasn't
  • Had not → hadn't

Modal verb + not

  • Can not → can't
  • Could not → couldn't
  • Will not → won't
  • Would not → wouldn't
  • May not → mayn't
  • Might not → mightn't
  • Must not → mustn't
  • Used not → ×
  • Ought not → oughtn't
  • Dare not → daren't
  • Need not → needn't


 Rule 2:  Pronoun + Auxiliary Verbs:

Pronoun + to be verbs →

Am → ’m,   is → ’s ,  are → ’re   

  • I am → I’m 
  • We are → we’re
  • You are → you’re
  • He is → he’s
  • She is → she’s
  • It is → it’s (also, It has → it’s)
  • That is → that’s
  • They are → they’re
  • Somebody is → somebody’s
  • Someone is → someone’s
  • Something is → something’s

Pronoun + to have verbs →

Have → ’ve,   has → ’s,   had → ’d

  • I have → I’ve
  • We have → we’ve
  • You have → you’ve
  • He has → ×
  • She has → ×
  • It has → it’s (also, It is → it’s)
  • They have → they’ve
  • Somebody has → somebody’s
  • Someone has → someone’s
  • Something has → something’s

Pronoun + modal verbs →

There are two modal verbs that can be contracted with pronouns —
Shall/will → ’ll,   Would → ’d.

Pronoun + will
  • I shall / I will→ I’ll
  • We shall / We will → we’ll
  • You will → you’ll
  • He will → he’ll
  • She will → she’ll
  • It will → it’ll
  • This will → this’ll
  • They will → they’ll

Pronoun + would
  • I would → I’d
  • We would → we’d
  • You would → you’d
  • He would → he’d
  • She would → she’d
  • It would → it’d
  • That would → that’d
  • They would → they’d


 Rule 3:  Wh Words + Auxiliary Verbs:

Who:
  • Who did → who’d
  • Who is → who’s
  • Who are → who’re
  • Who has → who’s
  • Who have → who’ve
  • Who had → who’d
  • Who would → who’d

What:
  • What is → what’s
  • What are → what’re
  • What will → what’ll
  • What would → what’d
  • What have → what’ve

Which:
  • Which is → which’s
  • Which has → which’s 

When:
  • When did → when’d
  • When is → when's
  • When had → when's 

Why:
  • Why did → why’d
  • Why is → why’s
  • Why are → why’re
  • Why has → why’s
  • Why have → why’ve

Where:
  • Where is → where’s
  • Where are → where’re
  • Where have → where’ve
  • Where has → where’s
  • Where will → where’ll 

How:
  • How would → how’d
  • How did → how’d
  • How will → how’ll
  • How is → how’s
  • How are → how’re
  • How has → how’s

 Rule 4: : Auxiliary verb + auxiliary verb:

  • Could have → could’ve
  • Might have → might’ve
  • Must have → must’ve
  • Should have → should’ve

 Rule 5:  Let + Pronoun:

  • Let us → let’s

What is the difference between It's and Its?

The difference is - 
It'sIt is and It has.

That's all about contractions in English Grammar. Hope this will help you.
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